Full Bio >, Susan Fratzke is a Senior Policy Analyst at MPI, where she works with the International Program. Industrial production, for example, increased by 30 % between 1953 and 1958 (Dietz and Kaczmarczyk 2008). This is perhaps because many migrants from outside Europe have found other routes of arrival, including irregular entrance and stay. In C. Bonifazi, M. Okólski, J. Schoorl, & P. Simon (Eds.). European governments became aware that migrant populations were likely to remain on their territory, and they slowly began to develop integration policies. (2008). A similar rise is also observed in the UK, where numbers increased from 1000 to 3000 (ibid.). As a result, the need for adequate integration policies became apparent, and such policies slowly started to develop (see Doomernik and Bruquetas in this volume). Main phases in immigration, its backgrounds, and its determinants across the continent are described making use of secondary literature and data. The brief highlights the need for stronger leadership and coordination on immigration policy—which still lacks a coherent, comprehensive approach beyond the Home Affairs domain—as well as for the allocation of resources, political and otherwise, to effect real change, both within the European Union and with third countries. 2009; Verwiebe 2014). Studying migration systems rather than focusing exclusively on one aspect of mobility is thus called for. Previous studies indicate that only a small share of the European population is mobile (Bonin et al. This policy brief addresses the underlying mechanisms of policymaking around migration and asylum at the European Union level and identifies areas in which the EU institutions must reform if they are to ensure that the policy solutions designed in Brussels have the desired effect on the ground. In E. Recchi & A. Favell (Eds.). In sum, patterns of intra-EU migration are becoming increasingly diverse. Half of them returned in the period after the oil crisis (ibid.). (2015). The Italian government, for example, considered the labour migration programmes of North-Western European countries as a way to ‘get rid of the unemployed and to deprive the socialist and communist parties of potential voters’ (Hoerder 2002, 520). The number of foreign residents kept rising, due to a change in European migration systems from circular to chain migration and the related natural growth of migrant populations. Not logged in Not affiliated Nevertheless, it did not bring East-West migration to a complete halt (Fassmann and Münz 1994). Goldscheider, C., Bernhardt, E., & Goldscheider, F. (2008). 1998). Levrau, F., Piqueray, E., Goddeeris, I., & Timmerman, C. (2014). European Union (EU), international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. Immigration of non-EU migrants, however, seems less affected. Since then the number of irregular arrivals on this route has greatly reduced thanks to close cooperation between the EU and Turkey. As a result, North-Western European governments started to recruit labour in peripheral countries. (2014, 108). European societies must demonstrate awareness of this with policies crafted to acknowledge the diverse nature and dynamic character of migration that we have shown in this chapter. The oil crisis of 1973–1974 had considerable impact on the economic landscape of Europe. The United States began regulating immigration soon after it won independence from Great Britain, and the laws since enacted have reflected the politics and migrant flows of the times. Statistics on international migration flows. Quantifying global international migration flows. 202-266-1900. part of European history comes quite naturally for migrations up to the early 20th century. 2012). Castles, S., De Haas, H., & Miller, M. J. This continues to be an important issue in the discourse today. The Eastern Mediterranean route refers to the sea crossing from Turkey. (2014). While policymakers in the European Union are working on a European Agenda on Migration to address the short- and long-term migration and asylum challenges facing the region, it has become clear that the modus operandi of the European institutions is ill equipped to respond in either a timely or comprehensive manner. From 1900 to 1920, nearly 24 million immigrants arrived during what is known as the “Great Wave”. Until 1988, most of these Aussiedler migrated from Poland (Dietz 2006; Münz and Ulrich 1998). European citizens enjoy the right of freedom of movement, and might decide to temporarily or permanently settle in another European country for a variety of reasons, including family formation, retirement, study, and work. 202-266-1900, National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, Language Access: Translation and Interpretation Policies and Practices, Latin America & The Caribbean Migration Portal, Illegal Immigration & Interior Enforcement, At the Starting Gate: The Incoming Biden Administration’s Immigration Plans, Future EU Policy Development on Immigration and Asylum: Understanding the Challenge, Facing 2020: Developing a New European Agenda for Immigration and Asylum Policy, Not Adding Up: The Fading Promise of Europe's Dublin System, How to Fix the Global Migration Management System. Parliament has adopted numerous own-initiative resolutions addressing migration, in particular its resolution of 12 April 2016on the situation in the Mediterranean and the need for a holistic EU approach to migration, which assesses the various policies at stake, and develops a set of recommendations. (2006). These movements likely include retirement migration from Northern to Southern Europe, but also point to increased labour mobility between these countries, especially considering the flows towards the UK, as will be further discussed later. Third-country nationals, moreover, move to geographically close countries, for example, from Germany and Italy to Austria, from Estonia and Sweden to Finland, from the Czech Republic and Germany to Poland, from Austria and the Czech Republic to Slovakia, and from Denmark and Germany to Sweden (ibid.). Based on these numbers, we can discern several groups. In the period after the Second World War, North-Western Europe was economically booming. Due to struggles for independence in former colonies, many European countries received return migrants as well as migrants fleeing hostile conflict environments. (2014). Others, such as the Algerian harkis (auxiliaries in the French colonial army) in France, Asian Ugandans in Britain, and a substantial share of Surinamese in the Netherlands, arrived during or after independence (ibid.). The main destination countries were Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. Furthermore, the principal non-European destinations for UK migrants are English-speaking countries such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA (Murray et al. One of the most important elements in this period has been the removal of barriers to intra-European mobility, while migration into the EU has become more restricted. Development of this dichotomy has important consequences for the lives of individual migrants and for social cohesion. Contrasting these cases, for which we have detailed information, suggests the diversity of migration flows and motives within Europe. Different European regions are covered in the analyses, based on available statistics and an analysis of secondary material. Furthermore, immigration as a topic has outgrown the Home Affairs portfolio, and as such needs to be addressed in a more cross-cutting fashion, involving multiple spheres of government. These controls on the entrance of foreigners went hand in hand with increased irregular migration (Bade, We first analyse general trends in migration towards Europe, based on new estimates of global migration flows by Abel and Sander (, Looking at the top-15 countries of origin of newly arrived immigrants in 2009 and 2012, we find large numbers of migrants from India and China, followed by Morocco and Pakistan (Table, In addition to the data on newly arriving immigrants (flow statistics), it is also relevant to know the main countries of origin of non-European migrants residing in the EU (stock statistics). According to Eurostat (2014a), in 2012, 32 % of migrants received a residence permit for family reasons, 23 % for work, 22 % for education, and 23 % for other reasons including asylum. Fassmann, H., & Münz, R. (1992). Estimates of the numbers of individuals that left Italy, Spain, Greece, and Portugal between 1950 and 1970 vary from 7 to 10 million (Okólski, In this same phase, numbers of asylum applications started to rise in Europe (especially in the 1980s and after the fall of the Berlin Wall; Hansen, The 1992 Maastricht Treaty’s abolition of borders considerably eased intra-EU movements (see also next sections of this chapter). The emigration of immigrants, return vs onward migration: Evidence from Sweden. From 2006 onwards, however, asylum applications rose due to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, and more recently, the Arab Spring. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, new asylum applications followed the conjuncture of admission restrictions and numbers of violent conflicts (ibid.). In line with the logic of the Cold War, whatever the motives of those who moved to the West, they were considered to be political refugees (Fassmann and Münz 1994). Migration flows were strongly guided by differences in economic development between regions characterized by pre-industrial agrarian economies and those with highly industrialized economies (Bade 2003; Barou 2006), both internationally and nationally (e.g., with unskilled workers moving from Southern Italy towards the industrial centres in Northern Italy). In 1992, the UK joined other EU nations in signing the Maastricht Treaty on European integration. Vilar, J. Based on these numbers, we can discern several groups. Asylum applications to the EU-15 by destination country, 1970–1999 (thousands), Source: Hatton (2004, 10). Learn more about the EU … Finally, in recent years, the global economic crisis seems to have impacted patterns of intra-EU migration. Regimes of mobility across the globe. Leah Boustan interviewed by Tim Phillips ... 14 - 14 January 2021 / Online / Centre for Economic Policy Research and the Universities of Oxford and York . Münz, R., & Ulrich, R. (1998). EU leaders called for further developing a fully functioning comprehensive migration policy in the EU's strategic agenda for 2019-2024. Integration Processes and Policies in Europe, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute/ KNAW/UG, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21674-4_3. The reason why, and the development of recent interest in migration history both in popular history representations and in academic research are outlined in this paper. Between 2002 and 2006, asylum applications in the EU-15 decreased from 393,000 to 180,000 (ibid.). One of the main reasons was the Cold War division of Europe which severely restricted East-West labour mobility. The UK attracts a considerable number of migrants from ex-colonies such as India and Pakistan (Office for National Statistics 2011). The analyses on flows of migration are supplemented by a sketch of the residing immigrant population across Europe. 2014, 229). The restrictions on the entrance of foreigners into North-Western Europe also had another effect. The second group is made up of countries where more than half of emigration moves are directed towards other European countries, and immigration is mostly non-European. 2014, 103). All rights reserved. B. Figure, We start with characteristics of those who move. Portugal, in contrast, experienced return migration from its former colonies, where fierce and violent struggles for independence were under way. Polish immigration in Belgium since 2004: New dynamics of migration and integration? Top-15 countries of origin of newly arrived non-EU migrants in the EU, 2009 and 2012, Note: Numbers refer to non-EU nationals whose previous place of residence was in a non-EU country and who had established their residence in a EU member state in the respective year, Top-10 countries of nationality of non-EU migrants residing in the European Union, 2012, Note: Numbers refer to non-EU nationals whose previous place of residence was in a non-EU country and who had established their residence in a EU member state for a period of at least 12 months. Whereas in the first period, European migrants were most numerous, the share of non-European migrant populations significantly grew during the second period. Nevertheless, migration flows were transformed rather than halted. After the migration stop, countries increasingly controlled entries of foreigners, and migration became an important topic in national political and public debates (Bonifazi 2008; see also Doomernik & Bruquetas in this volume). (1984, 87–88) for detailed sources, Notes: Figures for all countries except the UK are for foreign residents. Nevertheless, the largest share of these Aussiedler (63 %) arrived after 1989 (Dietz 2006). The demographics of movers and stayers in the European Union. The composition of the residing migrant population also changed during this period. Similar findings have been reported on intra-EU migrant groups in other destinations such as Belgium and the UK (see, e.g., Levrau et al. The second period extended from the oil crisis in the early 1970s to the fall of the Iron Curtain in the late 1980s. Putting the pieces of the puzzle together: Age and sex-specific estimates of migration amongst countries in the EU/EFTA, 2002–2007. European Union citizens currently have the right to live and work in other EU countries - a right first established by the Treaty of Rome in the 1950s. Glick Schiller, N., & Salazar, N. B. European countries had been making war against one another since the Middle Ages. The global economic crisis that started in 2008 might be considered the end of this third period, as it brought, at least temporarily, an end to ‘rapid economic growth, EU expansion and high immigration’ (Castles et al. 22.214.171.124. Seeking asylum in Europe. Refugees seeking shelter from Syria's war arrived in high numbers to the EU via this route in 2015. This article analyses the unique features of M. Thatcher’s government approach in the area of national legislation aimed at reduction of colour immigration from former British colonies to the UK in view of the EU general requirements on ‘open-door’ policy development for the member-states. The outbreak of World War I reduced immigration from Europe, but mass immigration resumed upon the war's conclusion, and Congress responded with a new immigration policy: the national-origins quota system passed in 1921 and revised in 1924. Migrants from non-European countries who had come under labour recruitment schemes increasingly settled permanently, as returning to their home country for long periods now entailed a significant risk of losing their residence permit. Considering intra-EU mobility of third-country nationals, an upward trend is observed between 2007 and 2011. However, as Castles, De Haas and Miller (ibid.) The first period was characterized by labour migration and a favourable stance towards migration, covering the years from the beginning of the bilateral guest worker agreements until the oil crisis. Return migration of foreign students and non-resident tuition fees. 263829) “Families of Migrant Origin: A Life Course Perspective”.Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. International students, for example, might become labour migrants upon graduation, and subsequently seek family reunification. In M. Poulain, N. Perrin, & A. Singleton (Eds.). Between 1950 and 1990, 12 million people migrated from East to West (Fassmann and Münz 1992), many of them to Germany. It paves the way for monetary union and includes a chapter on social policy. Since the 1990s, however, migration motives have become increasingly diversified, including a growing number of young people migrating to attend higher education. Three historical periods were distinguished. (2013). observe, the decline in immigration from non-European countries has been rather modest, and the anticipated mass returns to migrants’ home countries have not occurred as yet. This research was part of and supported by the European Research Council Starting Grant project (no. Compared with European citizens, intra-EU moves of third-country nationals are found to form only a small share of total intra-EU mobility between 2007 and 2011. See Castles et al. As a result, it seems that comparable to the “migration stop” after the oil crisis of the 1970s or during the Cold War, migration towards Europe will be transformed rather than come to a complete halt in the coming years. We now consider the relative importance of migration flows as a share of countries’ total immigration and emigration figures. Estimation of international migration flow tables in Europe. Welcome to the EU Immigration Portal. 2014; Hansen 2003). 1. 2008). These interactive maps on MPI’s Data Hub display populations of refugees and asylum seekers by origin and country of residence. Full Bio >, Elizabeth Collett was Director of Migration Policy Institute Europe and Senior Advisor to MPI's Transatlantic Council on Migration. This means that the quality of migration data is often limited (Abel 2010; Kupiszewska and Nowok 2008; Nowok et al. A significant number of people from the colonies came to Belgium, France, the Netherlands, the UK, and in the 1970s, Portugal. Factors affecting family transitions to adulthood in Sweden. For Sweden, the most popular destinations for migrants are (besides the Nordic neighbours) English-speaking countries such as the UK and the USA (Mannheimer 2012). 3.3. UK data are census figures for 1951, 1961, and 1971 and estimates for 1975. The crisis gave impetus to economic restructuring, sharply reducing the need for labour (Boyle, Halfacree & Robinson 1998). Findlay, A. M. (2011). The final section of this chapter presents figures on migration and migrants relying mainly on data from three research projects which aimed to create and improve harmonized and consistent migration data (Abel and Sander 2014; Raymer et al. Introduction. Eastern Mediterranean route (background information) It was characterized by a cessation of guest worker migration and stringent entry restrictions for new migrants. It should be noted, however, that statistical data on migration and mobility in Europe is mostly incomplete, as they are based mainly on reports and registrations of the individuals concerned. 2006). The share of non-EU nationals in these movements barely surpasses 4 % in the countries for which statistics are available: 1.8 % in Germany, 3.6 % in Austria, 3.7 % in Finland, 2.3 % in the Netherlands, and 1.2 % in the UK (ibid.). This goal is still reflected in a number of national programmes today, for example, in Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and the UK. Asylum is a fundamental right and an international obligation for countries, as recognised in the 1951 Geneva Convention on the protection of refugees. Murray, R., Harding, D., Angus, T., Gillespie, R., & Arora, H. (2012). The common migration policy refers to citizens of non-EU countries (third country nationals). Britain may only have been continuously inhabited for the last 12,000 years. ©Prospect Magazine, June 2000 / OECD Observer No 221-222, Summer 2000 Many migrants started to bring their families to Europe. It comprises a common asylum and immigration policy, a policy towards nationals of third countries and a common external border control (Art. Immigration plummeted during the global depression of the 1930s and World War II (1939-1945). In practice, these categories reflect migration motives as accepted in admission labels. But it was also the result of a larger extent of return migration among Southern European populations, given the increased quality of life and employment opportunities in Southern Europe (Barou 2006). The history of immigration quotas . Yet, our findings provide only a general overview, as the complexity of migration to and from Europe extends well beyond the scope of a single chapter. This policy brief addresses the underlying mechanisms of policy development around migration and asylum and identifies areas where reform to EU institutions is needed. Local workers could not fill the vacancies, as labour reservoirs were limited. The increased co-operation within the European Union and the Council of Europe on matters related to immigration and asylum requires the publication of theoretical and empirical research. However, reasons for origin countries to support emigration went beyond the economic. In countries on the other side of the Mediterranean, population pressure continued to be substantial, due to high fertility and unemployment rates. In addition, this distinction into different periods enables us to appreciate the current and ongoing political and public debates on migration in Europe. Non-EU nationals were evenly split between men and women (ibid.). Moreover, European countries are interested in highly skilled migrants in the context of a global competition for talent. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística). (2014). Their geographical location at the borders of Europe might explain this pattern, as these countries receive immigrants from neighbouring (non-European) countries and function as transit countries. It is important to bear these different periods in mind when studying current migration flows in Europe. 2.Free movement of people should come to an end when Britain leaves the EU in March 2019. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the work’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work’s Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt, or reproduce the material. In this context, several European countries, such as France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK simplified procedures for international students to make the education-to-work transition (Tremblay 2005; Van Mol 2014). Migration into the EU, in contrast, remains largely associated with active measures of access restriction and border control (see, e.g., Council of the EU 2002). The crisis mainly seems to have affected intra-European migration, with a decrease in overall free movement within the EU and with the peripheral countries hardest hit by the crisis—particularly Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain—again becoming emigration countries (Castles et al. The European Parliament increases its influence in EU affairs and in 1979 all citizens can, for the first time, elect their members directly. About 10,000 years ago t… As such, intra-EU mobility and migration into the EU have become embedded in different and often opposing discourses. 202-266-1940 | fax. Patterns and trends of international migration in Western Europe. Figure. The EU’s common currency is the euro. Guest editorial on meeting and mating across borders: Union formation in the European Union single market. In terms of the stock, 4 % of the total EU population in 2013 was a non-EU national, accounting for about 6 % of the EU’s total working age population (Eurostat 2014a). 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 | ph. After all, family reunification of migrant workers was considered a fundamental right, anchored in article 19 of the European Social Charter of 1961. Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 2.5 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/) which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. 2014). What integrates the second generation? 1998). This might be due to the legal restrictions often imposed on this group of migrants, or it could be more related to factors such as language similarities between bordering countries (De Valk and Díez Medrano 2014). In this context the paper seeks to make a contribution to the debate and discussions on the vital issue of migration both in Europe and beyond. Most of the EU’s current 28 member countries produce annual statistics on immigration and emigration. Favell, A., & Recchi, E. (2009). The UK negotiates an optout on both. The 1924 quota system remained largely in place until the 1960s, when a new law established a new system. Circular plots of migration flows towards and from Europe, per 5 year period between 1990 and 2010 (Source: www.global-migration.info). 2015 ) the end of this dichotomy has important consequences for the last...., K., & Ulrich, R. ( 1992 ) attract highly skilled or educated migrants had been. 1970S to the dynamic nature of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of migration flows transformed! 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